Data Availability StatementNot applicable. metastasis and angiogenesis in a variety of tumors. Recent studies have also indicated that curcumin can modulate the tumor immune response and remodel the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment, indicating its potential in the immunotherapy of cancer. In this review, a brief introduction to the effects of curcumin on the tumor immune response and tumor immune microenvironment is provided and recent clinical trials investigating the potential of curcumin in cancer therapy are discussed. and (27) and Srivastava and Srivastava (28) demonstrated that curcumin inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cell lines. Wang (27) also proven that curcumin inhibited tumor oxidative tension with following inactivation from the Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, phosphorylation-mediated inactivation from the JAK2/STAT3 signaling NU7026 enzyme inhibitor pathway can be mixed up in anti-proliferation aftereffect of curcumin on osteosarcoma cells (29). Oddly enough, in lung tumor, increased manifestation degrees of lengthy non-coding RNA (lncRNA) UCA1 counteracted the anticancer proliferation ramifications of curcumin, recommending that lncRNA UCA1 could be involved with curcumin-mediated inactivation of Wnt and mTOR signaling pathways (30). Curcumin and tumor apoptosis Apoptosis may be the process of designed cell death that’s caused by harm to DNA or additional organelles, such as for example mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, when cells are externally activated (31). Apoptosis could be induced by many exogenous pathways, including pathways mediated by loss of life receptor Fas as well as the tumor necrosis element receptor family members (32,33), cytokine-mediated endogenous pathways and caspase-12 activation due to endoplasmic reticulum tension (34). Curcumin can be hypothesized to mediate tumor cell apoptosis through these exogenous pathways. Artificial curcumin nonspherical mesoporous silica nanoparticles can raise the holding capability and saturability of curcumin (35). In-depth research show that curcumin binds apoptotic proteins, such as for example caspase-3 (36), phosphatase and tensin homolog erased from chromosome 10 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (37), inducing mitochondrial harm and thereby advertising tumor cell apoptosis (35). Another man made nanomaterial, chitosan nanoparticles packed with demethoxycurcumin in conjunction with cisplatin, downregulates the manifestation degrees of thymidine phosphorylase necessary for DNA self-repairing pyrimidine salvage pathways and NU7026 enzyme inhibitor induces apoptosis in non-small cell lung tumor (NSCLC) cell lines (38). Furthermore, Wang (27) proven that in NSCLC, curcumin reduces the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and escalates the build up of reactive air varieties (ROS) in cells, NU7026 enzyme inhibitor inducing DNA and mitochondrial damage-mediated apoptosis (39). Curcumin, tumor invasion and metastasis The invasion and metastasis ability of tumor cells is a common cause of tumor treatment failure (40) and curcumin can significantly inhibit these activities in tumor cells. A study of oral squamous cell carcinoma showed that curcumin reduced cell adhesion and inhibited proliferation of tumor cells with mesenchymal features (41). In addition, tumor growth factor-1 (TGF-1) is an important promoter of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells. In liver cancer, curcumin can decreased the expression levels of TGF-1, inhibit the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad2, reduce the specific binding of Smad2 to the Snail promoter, downregulate Snail expression levels and inhibit EMT by competing with TGF-1 (42). A moderate amount of ROS accumulation has been reported to be beneficial to tumor GTBP progression (43). Curcumin reversed the effect of H2O2 and ROS on pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis by specifically inhibiting the extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK)/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-B) signal pathway (44). Curcumin and tumor neoangiogenesis The growth of a solid tumor depends on tumor neovascularization (45). Angiogenic factors such as VEGF, hypoxia-inducible factor-1, angiopoietin-1 and ?2 NU7026 enzyme inhibitor and interleukin-2, ?8 and ?17 are closely associated with tumor neovascularization (46,47). These factors can be modulated by curcumin to remodel tumor neovascularization. VEGF is a crucial target for curcumin to regulate tumor angiogenesiss (48). Curcumin inhibits the expression levels of VEGF, reduces its extracellular secretion and binds to the VEGF receptor, inhibiting the VEGF downstream signaling pathway (48). Curcumin can block hepatocyte growth factor induced EMT in lung cancer cell lines and the angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells through targeting c-Met/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, which indicated the anti-metastasis and anti-angiogenesis ability of curcumin in tumor treatment (49). The PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway can be clogged by curcumin focusing on c-Met, and curcumin abolishes the angiogenesis of human being umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by hepatocyte development element. Tumor and Curcumin chemoresistance.