The evolutionary conserved family of heat shock proteins (HSP) is responsible for protecting cells against different types of stress including oxidative stress. HDL-C and LDL-C within each group. For this analysis serum HSP70 was transformed into logarithmic level to change its distribution to normal. Kendall’s tau-b test was employed to investigate the correlation between HSP70 and history of hypertension. Results The characteristics of the participants are offered in Table?1. There were Bay 65-1942 no significant differences between groups with respect to age sex BMI systolic and diastolic blood pressure creatinine cholesterol and HDL-C. Serum triglycerides and FBS were significantly higher in diabetic patients than healthy controls (p?0.001). HbA1C was not significantly different between newly diagnosed patients and those with diabetes duration of more than 5?years. History of hypertension was significantly higher in patients with diabetes duration >5?years than newly diagnosed patients (p?=?0.049). Serum HSP70 levels in patients with diabetes was higher than in controls (0.70 [0.59-0.81] vs. 0.23 [0.22-0.30]?ng/ml; p?0.001). Similarly HSP70 levels were higher in Bay 65-1942 patients with long-standing diabetes than newly diagnosed ones (0.80 [0.70-1.05] vs. 0.42 [0.41-0.64]; p?0.001; Fig.?1). Logarithmic transformed concentrations of serum HSP70 was inversely correlated (r?=??0.500 p?0.01) with FBS in patients with known disease (Fig.?2). This association remained significant (r?=??0.530 p?0.001) after adjustment for age sex and BMI. We did not find SLC3A2 any association between serum HSP70 levels and HbA1c in patients with diabetes. There was a significant positive correlation between logarithmic-transformed serum HSP70 levels and age (r?=?0.20 p?0.001) Bay 65-1942 BMI (r?=?0.25 p?0.001) or systolic blood pressure (r?=?0.24 p?0.05) in all studied populace. Also there was a significant positive correlation between serum HSP70 levels and history of hypertension in newly diagnosed patients (r?=?0.286 p?0.01). Table?1 Characteristics of participants in the three groups Fig.?1 Box plot demonstrating the higher serum level of HSP-70 (ng/ml) in newly diagnosed diabetes vs. control group (p?0.01) and in patients with diabetes period >5?years compared with newly diagnosed diabetic patients … Fig.?2 Scatter plot demonstrating a significant correlation (r?=??0.50 p?=?0.002) between the log-transformed serum HSP70 levels (ng/ml) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) in patients with diabetes period of more than 5?years … Conversation Our data showed that circulating levels of HSP70 are increased in patients with diabetes and are associated with the period of the disease. Our results support the hypothesis that HSP70 may play an important role in determining the biological characteristics of long-standing diabetes. In addition serum HSP70 Bay 65-1942 levels correlated inversely with FBS and correlated positively with age in patients with longer disease duration. Clinical studies around the levels of HSP70 in diabetes are limited. There were two reports of serum HSP70 level in type 1 diabetic patients (Gruden et al. 2009; Oglesbee et al. 2005). In a case-control study conducted in type 1 diabetics increased level of HSP72 was observed in diabetic ketoacidosis which was significantly decreased after treatment (Oglesbee et al. 2005). However another case-control study reported immeasurable serum HSP70 level in type Bay 65-1942 1 diabetic patients with and without microvascular complications (Gruden et al. 2009). Our results are clearly supported by other studies in type 2 diabetes. In a previous study serum HSP70 levels were found to be higher in non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes Bay 65-1942 subjects in comparison with insulin treated ones (Hunter-Lavin et al. 2004). A cross-sectional study showed increased level of HSP70 in mononuclear cells of type 2 diabetic patients versus normal subjects (Yabunaka et al. 1995). Similarly a case-control study which measured oxidative stress markers in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes-induced nephropathy and healthy controls.