The peptides derived from envelope proteins have been shown to inhibit

The peptides derived from envelope proteins have been shown to inhibit the protein-protein interactions in the computer virus membrane fusion process and thus have a great potential to be developed into effective antiviral therapies. peptide inhibitors targeting the computer virus fusion process. Introduction Fusion process is the initial step of viral contamination, therefore targeting the fusion process represents a encouraging strategy in design of antiviral therapy [1]. The access step entails fusion of the viral and the cellular receptor membranes, which is usually mediated by the viral envelope (E) proteins. You will find three classes of envelope proteins [2]: Class I E proteins include influenza computer 490-46-0 manufacture virus (IFV) hemagglutinin and retrovirus Human Immunodeficiency Computer virus 1 (HIV-1) gp41; Class II E proteins include a quantity of important human flavivirus pathogens such as Dengue computer virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis computer virus (JEV), Yellow fever computer virus (YFV), West Nile computer virus (WNV), hepatitis C computer 490-46-0 manufacture virus (HCV) and Togaviridae computer virus such as alphavirus Semliki Forest computer virus (SFV); Class III E proteins include vesicular stomatitis computer virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex computer virus-1 (HSV-1) and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Although the exact fusion mechanism remains elusive and the three classes of viral fusion proteins exhibit unique structural folds, they may share a similar mechanism of membrane fusion [3]. A peptide derived from a protein-protein interface would inhibit the formation of that interface by mimicking the interactions with its partner proteins, and therefore may serve as a encouraging lead in drug discovery [4]. Enfuvirtide (T20), a peptide that mimicks the HR2 region of Class I HIV-1 gp41, is the first FDA-approved HIV-1 fusion drug that inhibits the access process of computer virus infection [5C7]. Then peptides mimicking extended regions of the HIV-1 gp41 were also exhibited as effective access inhibitors [8, 9]. Furthermore, peptides derived from a distinct region of GB computer virus C E2 protein were found to interfere with the very early events of the HIV-1 replication cycle [10]. Other successful examples of Class I peptide inhibitors include peptide inhibitors derived from SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein [11C13] and from Pichinde computer virus (PICV) envelope protein [14]. Recently, a peptide derived from the fusion initiation region of the glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) in IFV, Flufirvitide-3 (FF-3) has progressed into clinical trial [15]. The success of developing the Class I peptide inhibitors into clinical use has triggered the interests in the design of Rabbit polyclonal to AKAP13 inhibitors of the Class II and Class III E proteins. e.g. several hydrophobic peptides derived from the Class II DENV and WNV E proteins exhibited potent inhibitory activities [16C20]. In addition, a potent peptide inhibitor derived from the domain name III of JEV glycoprotein and a peptide inhibitor derived from the stem region 490-46-0 manufacture of Rift Valley fever computer virus (RVFV) glycoprotein were reported [21, 22]. Examples of the Class II peptide inhibitors of enveloped computer virus also include those derived from HCV E2 protein [23, 24] and from Claudin-1, a critical host factor in HCV access [25]. Moreover, peptides derived from the Class III HSV-1 gB also exhibited antiviral activities [26C31], as well as those derived from HCMV gB [32]. Computational informatics plays an important role in predicting the activities of the peptides generated from combinatorial libraries. methods such as data mining, generic algorithm and vector-like analysis were reported to predict the antimicrobial activities of peptides [33C35]. In addition, quantitative structure-activity associations (QSAR) [36C40] and artificial neural networks (ANN) were applied to predict the activities of peptides [41, 42]. Recently, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was employed to predict the antivirus activities using the physicochemical properties of general antiviral peptides [43]. However, the mechanism of action of antiviral peptides is different from antimicrobial peptides; in fact, various protein targets are involved in the computer virus contamination. 490-46-0 manufacture e.g. HIV-1 computer virus infection involves computer virus fusion, integration, reverse transcription and maturation, etc. Thus it is hard to retrieve the common features from general antiviral peptides to represent their antiviral activities. Virus.