Objective: To statement neurologic phenotypes and their etiologies determined among 68 individuals with either (1) celiac disease (CD) or (2) no CD, but gliadin antibody positivity (2002C2012). in 10 of 68 individuals, all with autoimmune neurologic diagnoses (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 IgG, 4; voltage-gated potassium channel complex IgG, 3; others, 5). Tg6-IgA/IgG was recognized in 7 of 68 individuals (cerebellar ataxia, 3; myelopathy, 2; CGI1746 ataxia and parkinsonism, 1; neuropathy, 1); the 2 2 individuals with myelopathy experienced neurologic disorders explained by malabsorption of copper, vitamin E, and folate rather than by neurologic autoimmunity. Conclusions: Our data support causes alternative to gluten exposure for neurologic dysfunction among most gliadin antibodyCpositive individuals without CD. Nutritional deficiency and coexisting autoimmunity may cause neurologic dysfunction in CD. Celiac disease (CD) is definitely a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to diet gluten within wheat, rye, and barley.1 CD has one of the strongest human being leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations. Family members of individuals with CD who do not have HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 have low risk of developing CD.2,3 Coexisting autoimmune diseases are common in CD, and include diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease.4 Early neurologic reports included sensory ataxia (due to myeloneuropathy) usually without cerebellar ataxia.5 That phenotype is usually attributable to enteropathy-induced malabsorption of copper or vitamin E.6,C8 Rare autopsy cases of inflammatory neurologic disorders arising in individuals with CD have also been reported.5,9 A causal link between CGI1746 gluten exposure and nervous system inflammation has remained controversial.10 After their introduction in the 1970s, gliadin antibodies served as the serologic test for CD.11 Low specificity led to their abandonment for the analysis of CD.12 International consensus concluded that immunoglobulin (Ig)A antibodies with endomysial, transglutaminase-2 (Tg2), and deamidated gliadin specificities CGI1746 have first-class level of sensitivity and specificity.1 In the mid-1990s, first-generation gliadin antibodies were reported to be more common in individuals with idiopathic neurologic disorders than in individuals with neurologic disorders of known cause.13 This spawned reports of neurologic disorders triggered by gluten, unified by gliadin antibody positivity.14,C18 Those CGI1746 individuals may have both CD and the HLA-DQ2/DQ8 haplotype, one of those, or neither.18 Furthermore, Tg6 was reported like a pertinent nervous systemCspecific antigen.19,C21 Herein, we evaluate the significance of positive CD serologies in neurologic individuals evaluated in the Mayo Medical center, Rochester, MN (2002C2013). METHODS Standard protocol approvals, registrations, and patient consents. This study was authorized by the Mayo Medical center institutional review table (06-09331). The medical record index system (1997C2012) was interrogated for individuals who experienced received billing codes for both CD and a neurologic analysis (not necessarily simultaneously). Patient medical records (1,007 total) were reviewed for individuals in whom a analysis of gluten level of sensitivity or CD-related neurologic disorder was being regarded as. Of 111 individuals recognized, 68 with duodenal biopsy results recorded and serum available for additional testing were included. We examined medical records of the 68 individuals. We sought to establish the causes of neurologic dysfunction in individuals, among both those with CD and those without CD. To accomplish this, we divided individuals into 3 organizations CGI1746 relating to CD-prerequisite HLA haplotype and CD serologic findings. Group 1 individuals experienced the HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 haplotype and experienced second-generation CD serologic screening positivity (Tg2-IgA or -IgG, or deamidated gliadin IgA or IgG) during neurologic evaluation, or experienced a duodenal biopsy-proven analysis of CD before that evaluation. Group 2 individuals did not possess HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 haplotype, but nonetheless experienced first-generation CD serologic screening positivity (gliadin IgA or IgG). Group 3 individuals experienced the HLA-DQ2 Abcc4 or -DQ8 haplotype, and experienced gliadin IgA or IgG screening positivity. Patients with CD without neurologic disorders. Twenty-one individuals known to be Tg2-IgA seropositive and experienced CD, but experienced no neurologic symptoms known, were also tested for Tg6-IgA and -IgG by ELISA. Serum and CSF testing. Cells immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and cell-binding assays. Patient and control serums were assayed with indirect immunofluorescence for IgG and IgA antibodies with neural antigen specificity using the following 2 cryosectioned cells composites: (1) mouse mind (hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and thalamus), kidney, and belly; and (2) monkey mind (cerebellum and cerebrum) and mouse belly (Inova Diagnostics, San Diego, CA), as previously described.22 Patient serums were assayed for endomysial-IgA using monkey esophagus (EUROIMMUN, Lbeck, Germany). CSF specimens were available in 14 individuals, and were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence for neural-reactive autoantibodies. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays were used to detect serum antibodies with the following specificities: neuronal calcium channels (P/Q-type and N-type), voltage-gated.