This is the protocol for a review and there is no

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. concentration and morbid thoughts of death (APA 2000). Somatic issues will also be a common feature of major depression, and people with severe major depression may develop psychotic symptoms (APA 2000). Major depression is the third leading cause R935788 of disease burden world-wide and is expected to display a rising pattern over the next 20 years (WHO 2004; WHO 2008). A recent Western study offers estimated the point prevalence of major major depression and dysthymia at 3.9% and 1.1% respectively (ESEMeD/MHEDEA 2004). As the largest source of non-fatal disease burden in the world, accounting for 12% of R935788 years lived with disability (Ustun 2004), major depression is associated with designated personal, social and economic morbidity, loss of functioning and productivity and creates significant demands on service providers in terms of workload (Good 2009). Depression is also associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality (Cuijpers 2002). The strength of this association, actually taking account of confounders such as physical impairment, health-related behaviours and socio-economic factors, has been shown to be comparable to, or greater than, the strength of the association between smoking and mortality (Mykletun 2009). Description of the treatment Clinical recommendations recommend pharmacological and mental interventions, only or in combination, in the treatment of moderate to severe major depression (Good 2009). Antidepressant pre-scribing offers improved dramatically in many Western countries over the last 20 years, mainly with the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and newer providers such as venlafaxine. Antidepressants continue to be the mainstay of treatment for major depression in health care settings (Ellis 2004, Good 2009). Whilst antidepressants are of verified effectiveness for the acute treatment of major depression (Guaiana 2007; Arroll 2009; Cipriani 2009a; Cipriani 2009b; Cipriani 2009c), adherence rates remain very low (Hunot 2007; vehicle Geffen 2009), due in part to patients issues about side effects and possible dependency (Hunot 2007). Furthermore, studies consistently demonstrate individuals preference for mental therapies over that of antidepressants (Churchill 2000; Riedel-Heller 2005). Consequently, mental therapies provide an important alternative treatment for depressive disorders. A diverse range of mental therapies is now available for the treatment of common mental disorders (Pilgrim 2002). Psychological therapies may be broadly categorised into four independent philosophical and theoretical colleges, comprising psychoanalytic/dynamic (Freud 1949; Klein 1960; Jung 1963), behavioural (Watson 1924; Skinner 1953; Marks 1981), humanistic (Maslow 1943; Rogers 1951; May 1961) and cognitive methods (Lazarus 1971; Beck 1979). Each of these four colleges consists of a number of differing and overlapping psychotherapeutic methods. Some psychotherapeutic methods explicitly integrate parts from several theoretical colleges (e.g. cognitive analytic therapy (Ryle 1990)), or have been developed to address specific characteristics R935788 associated with particular disorders (e.g. interpersonal therapy for major depression (Klerman 1984)). During the 1st half of the twentieth century, psychology had been dominated by two colleges of thought, behaviourism and psychoanalysis. Humanistic mental therapies were developed in the 1950s and 60s like a protest against the diagnostic and pre-scriptive methods characterised from the analytic and behavioural colleges (Thorne 2007). These so-called R935788 third pressure psychology methods (Maslow 1959) brought about a paradigm shift, away from the mental determinism (the philosophical look at that human Adipor1 being cognition, behaviour, decision, and action, is definitely causally determined by events, and implying a lack of free will) and towards client choice and responsibility (Pilgrim 2002). Important mental therapies considered as humanistic in approach include Gestalt therapy (Perls 1976), existential therapy (vehicle Deurzen 1997), transactional analysis (Berne 1961), person-centred therapy (Rogers 1951), and process-experiential therapy (a manualised humanistic treatment combining person-centred therapy and emotion-focused therapy) (Greenberg 1998).To day, person-centred therapy remains the most commonly used psychotherapeutic approach in UK health care settings (Stiles 2008) (observe Types of interventions section for a detailed description of each type of therapy). How the treatment might work Humanistic mental treatments are based on the premise that people are self-actualizing, that is, they have an inherent tendency to develop their potential (Rogers 1951, Maslow 1970). Additional defining characteristics of humanistic therapies include the belief that people are self-aware, are free to choose how they will live, are responsible for the choices they make, and are unique entities that need to be understood in the context of their individual experiences and characteristics (Cain 2002). In medical practice, manualised or highly specific treatments for mental disorders are mainly avoided by humanistic therapists, on the basis that therapy should be individualised to fit with.